Archive for February, 2007

Considering the relationship between Internet and Globalization

Saturday, February 3rd, 2007

Technology has radically transformed global culture, and also the way that people are reflecting on that culture. The new political, economic and cultural atmosphere has been illustrated by the concept of Globalization.

Globalization interconnected the world on many different levels, such as the complexification of economic relations and the ‘levelling effects’ (Thanks Ed!) of global culture. The Internet can be seen as a promoter of global culture. In other words, the world is rearranged into ‘networks’ of relationships. In fact, technology plays an important role as it amplifies the mobility of goods, services and so on. Moreover, the effects of distant events like the tsunami in 2004 and the war in Iraq show the other side of globalisation, and its fluidity through new media technology.

From a certain critical point of view, Globalization and the Internet are illustrated as a new Imperialism as they are symbolic of the west and they accelerate homogeneity (i.e. people all download the same music from the Internet and wear the same brands). In this respect, the Internet is described as an enormous supermarket whose duty is to dominate ‘the other’ by using high technology. Of course, this does not only apply to products , but also involves the cultural industry. However, there are some who hold optimistic views on this issue since each individual can possibly produce any kind of techno-culture and also ‘use the net to achieve greater control over globalizing influences’ (J. Slevin) in this public sphere.

The Internet itself may be seen as an invention for accommodating citizen’s needs in contemporary society. Globalization has been criticised as one of the outcomes of it. Some may consider Gobalization as the inevitable outcome while others may see it as an accidental phenomenon. Instead of defining the essence of this issue, we had better focus on its possibilities in the future.

Enjoy every fresh morning!!!

Friday, February 2nd, 2007

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This is our breakfast for spring term – fruits smoothie&coffee
Supplementing vitamins
S&E secret recipe : green apple, banana, carrot/raspberry, plum/kiwi fruits, sesami seeds, pumpkin seeds, honey, organic lowfat yoghurt, soya milk,  青汁.

Feminism studies: Compare and contrast two competing accounts of ‘sexual difference’ – between Luce Irigaray and Judith Butler

Friday, February 2nd, 2007

Part 1 – The notion of ‘sex’

In order to compare and contrast the term ‘sexual difference’ between these two thinkers, it is necessary to define Irigaray and Butler’s notion of ‘sex’. In ‘This Sex Which Is Not One’, Irigaray criticized Freud’s concept of the ‘binary opposition’ of sexuality. She theorized, ‘another system is needed, a system that will privilege the feminine as much as the masculine and will be based on the multiplicity of sexuality’ (Harmon, 1996). By pointing out the ‘multiplicity of sexuality’, Irigaray explained that from the historical interpretation (Freud’s concept of Binary opposition), if male sexuality is based on having a penis (a single sex organ) and female sexuality is based on having ‘nothing’, and then the binary opposition could be one of ‘penis/nothing, clitoris, vagina’ (Harmon, 1996). It is clear that the ‘sex’ for Irigaray is not only ‘one’ – the ‘one’ indicates an active, male, patriarchal culture. What she argues against is the historical idea that women are passive, whose desire and pleasure have been situated in males. As Harmon stated, Irigaray suggested constructing a new system for women, which ‘will privilege the feminine as much as the masculine and will be based on the multiplicity of female sexuality.’

Judith Butler does not draw a clear line between sexes. She agrees that humans have natural characters but also claims that ‘sex’ reveals multiplicities to humans, who then need to be considered as ‘cultural products’. She contends that:

…there is a sedimentation of gender norms that produces the peculiar phenomenon of a natural sex, or a real woman…this is a sedimentation that over time has produced a set of corporeal styles which appear as the natural configuration of bodies into sexes which exist in a binary relation to one another’. (Butler, 1988, p.407)

Butler focuses on the relationship between ‘natural’ sex and ‘performative’ gender. She believes that sex is a gendered body, which bears cultural meanings. She states that ‘the acts by which gender is constituted bear similarities to performative acts within theatrical contexts’ (Butler, 1988, p.403). It seems that ‘cultural products’ play an important role in constructing different sexes. For her, sex is also not ‘only one’, but also not only two – it is the multiplicity. Sex is never ‘natural’ for her, but can be seen as a culturally transformed gender. ‘Gender performativity’ can be seen as a way to represent different sexes. Irigaray responded to and rejected the historical consequences (the binary opposition of sex), whereas for Butler’s ‘multiplicity’ this is irrelevant, but now it directly explains it’s own genesis.


Butler, J. (1988). Performative Acts and Gender Constitution. In Conboy, K., Medina, N., Stanbury, S. eds. Writing on the Body: Female Movement and Feminist Theory. New York: Columbia University Press, 1997.

Harmon, B. (1996). Luce Irigaray. Internet (last viewed 10 January 2007).


Thursday, February 1st, 2007

Today is my dearest teacher, friend and sister nobcco‘s birthday! I wish you a very happy birthday and all your wishes will come true in 2007!
I met nobcco in Japan, who is very important to me. During my time in Japan, She inspired me to expend my appreciation of art and also helped me develop as a person. Nobcco is a beautiful Japanese lady who is also a excellent artist. She embodies the most beautiful Japanese gesture and also an absolute style leader.
I haven’t seen her since last summer we had a short meeting in Kobe. I really miss you! I have so much to tell and share with you! Hope to visited you this summer again or let’s meet up in the UK. All the best!


Thank you for the comment my dear nobcco, that’s so sweet! I am fine and doing great! We are planning to visit Japan during this summer as well, will definitely come and see you. By the way, I have added a link directly to your homepage .I hope you don’t mind? Thanks dear!
love and miss you!